Department of Public Health Sciences

Ellen Gold, PhD

Department of Public Health Sciences
Division of Epidemiology
University of California, Davis
Davis, California 95616



Research Interests

Current research activities:

  • Lifestyle and Other Factors related to Hot Flashes and Timing of Menopause
  • Lifestyle and Ovarian Function in Midlife Women
  • Endocrine and other health effects of environmental exposures in women

My prior research activities included the following topics:

  • Reproductive Health Outcomes in Migrant Farmworker Women
  • Reproductive Health Outcomes in Semiconductor Industry Workers
  • Epidemiology of Brain Tumors and Leukemia in Children
  • Epidemiologic Study of Environmental Factors Associated with Pancreatic Cancer
  • Contraceptive Steroid Plasma Levels and Cardiovascular Disease in Women Using Oral Contraceptives
  • The Effects of Oral Contraceptives on Lipoprotein/Lipid Profiles of Healthy Young Women
  • Epidemiologic Study of the Association of Oral Contraceptives with Pituitary Adenomas and Secondary Amenorrhea
  • Family History in Children with Brain Tumors
  • Mortality in the California Central Valley


B.A., Bacteriology, University of California, Los Angeles, 1970
M.A., Zoology, University of California, Los Angeles, 1972
Ph.D., Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, 1977


Society for Epidemiologic Research
Society for Paediatric Epidemiologic Research
American College of Epidemiology
American Public Health Association
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Past Positions

1987-1990 Johns Hopkins University, Adjunct Associate Professor
1988-1996, University of California, Davis, Associate Professor
1987-1990, Johns Hopkins University, Adjunct Associate Professor
1986-1988, Health Officers Association of California, Epidemiologist
1982-1987, Johns Hopkins University, Associate Professor
1977-1982, Johns Hopkins University, Assistant Professor
1975-1977, Johns Hopkins University, Research Assistant
1971-1974, University of California, Los Angeles, Research Assistant


  • Outstanding Mentor Award, UC Davis Consortium for Women and Research, 2002
  • Outstanding Faculty/Staff Award, in the Graduate Group in Epidemiology, 2005
  • Dean’s Excellence in Mentoring Award, UC Davis School of Medicine, 2007
  • Delta Omega Honorary Public Health Society
  • Research Career Development Award granted by the National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences, 1990
  • Graduate Group in Epidemiology

Selected Journal Articles

  • Gold EB (2011) The timing of the age at which natural menopause occurs. Ob Gyn Clin No Amer 38:425-40
    PMID: 21961711 NIHMSID # 353085
  • Campbell IA, Bromberger J, Buysse DJ, Hall MH, Hardin KA, Kravitz HM, Matthews KA, O'Neill Rasor M, Utts J, Gold EB (2011) Evaluation of the association of menopausal status with delta and beta EEG activity during sleep . Sleep 34(11):1561-8
  • Waetjen LE, Xing G, Feng W-Y, Johnson WO, Greendale GA, Gold EB (2011) Serum estradiol levels are not associated with urinary incontinence in midlife women transitioning through menopause . Menopause 18(12):1283-1290
    PMID: 21785372
  • Butler LM, Gold EB, Conroy SM, Crandall CJ, Greendale GA, Oestreicher N, Quesenberry Jr CP, Habel LA (2010) Active, but not passive cigarette smoking is inversely associated with mammographic density in a multi-ethnic cohort . Cancer Causes and Control 21:301-311
  • Seritaan AL, Iosif A-M, Park JH, DeatherageHand D, Sweet RL, Gold EB (2010) Self-reported anxiety, depressive and vasomotor symptoms: a study of perimenopausal women presenting to a specialized midlife assessment center . Menopause 17:410-15
  • Gold EB, Pierce JJ, Natarajan L, Stefanick ML, Laughlin G, Caan BJ, Flatt SW, Emond JA, Saquib N, Madlensky L, Kealey S, Wasserman L, Thomson CA, Rock CL, Parker BA, Karanja N, Jones V, Hajek RA, Pu M, Mortimer J. (2009) Dietary pattern influences breast cancer prognosis in women without hot flashes: the Women�s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) trial . J Clin Oncol 27(3):352-9
  • Siddiqui AR, Lee K, Bennett D, Yang X, Brown KH, Bhutta ZA, Gold EB (2009) Indoor carbon monoxide and PM2.5 concentrations by cooking fuels in Pakistan. Indoor Air 19:75-82
  • Waetjen LE, Ye J, Feng W-Y, Johnson WO, Greendale GA, Sampselle CM, Sternfield B, Harlow SD, Gold EB (2009) Association between menopausal transition stages and developing urinary incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 114(5):989-98
  • Thurston RC, Sowers MF, Sternfeld B, Gold EB, et al. Gains in adiposity and vasomotor symptom reporting over the menopausal transition: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Amer J Epidemiol 2009;170:766-774.

  • Natarajan L, Pu M, Parker BA, Thomson C, Caan B, Flatt S, Madlensky L, Hajek R, Al-Delaimy WK, Saquib N, Gold EB, Pierce JP. Time-varying effects of prognostic factors associated with disease-free survival in breast cancer. Amer J Epidemiol 2009;169:1463-1470.

  • Crandall CJ, Zheng Y, Crawford SL, Thurston RC, Gold EB, Johnston JM, Greendale GA. Presence of vasomotor symptoms is associated with lower bone mineral density: a longitudinal analysis. Menopause 2009;16:239-46.

  • Crawford SL, Avis NE, Gold EB, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of recalled vasomotor symptoms in a multi-ethnic cohort. Amer J Epidemiol 2008; 168(12):1452-9

  • Siddiqui AR, Lee K, Bennett D, Yang X, Brown KH, Bhutta ZA, Gold EB. Kitchen carbon monoxide and PM2.5 generated by cooking fuels in a village of semi-rural Pakistani kitchens. Indoor Air 2009;19:75-82

  • Rock CL, Natarajan L, Pu W, Al-Delaimy WK, Caan BJ, Flatt SW, Gold EB, et al. Biological exposure to carotenoids is associated with breast cancer-free survival in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(2):486-494.

  • Hall MH, Matthews KA, Kravitz HM, Gold EB, et al. Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women: The SWAN sleep study. Sleep 2009;32(1):73-82

  • Gold EB, Pierce JJ, Natarajan L, et al. Influence of high vegetable, fruit and fiber dietary pattern on breast cancer prognosis by initial hot flash reporting: the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) trial. J Clin Oncol 2009 Jan 20;27(3):352-9

  • Kravitz HM, Zhoa X, Bromberger JT, Gold EB, et al. Sleep disturbance during the menopausal transition in a multi-ethnic community sample of midlife women. Sleep 2008; 31:979-990.

  • Butler LM, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Crandall CJ, Mundugno F, Ostreicher N, Quesenberry CP, Habel LA. Menstrual and reproductive factors in relation to mammographic density: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2008;112:165-74.

  • Sowers MFS, Zheng H,Kravitz HM, Matthews K, Bromberger JT, Gold EB, Owens J, Consens F, Hall M. Sex steroid hormone profiles are related to sleep measures from polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep 2008; 31:1339-1349.

  • Sowers MF, McConnell D, Jannausch ML, Randolph Jr JF, Brooke R, Gold EB, Crawford S, Lasley BL. Oestrogen metabolites in relation to isoprostanes as a measure of oxidative stress. Clin Endocrinol 2008; 68:806-13.

  • Santoro N, Crawford SL, Lasley BL, Luborsky JL, McConnell D, Randolph Jr JF, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Korenman SJ, Sowers MF. Factors related to declining luteal function in women during the menopausal transition: SWAN, the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. J Clin Endocrinol Met 2008; 93(5):1711-21.

  • Siddiqui AR, Yang X, Bhutta ZA, Brown KH, Gold EB. Prenatal exposure to wood fuel smoke and birth outcomes. Environ Health Persp 2008;116:543-549.

  • Waetjen LE, Feng W-Y, Ye J, Johnson WO, Sampselle CM, Greendale GA, Sternfeld B, Harlow SD, Gold EB. Factors associated with improving and worsening incontinence symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 111:667-677.

  • Rock CL, Flatt SW, Laughlin GA, Natarajan L, Al-Delaimey W-K, Caan BJ, Gold EB, Hajek RA, Hollenbach K, Jones LA, Stefanick ML, Pierce JP. Reproductive steroid hormones and recurrence-free survival in women with a history of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17:1-7.

  • Oestreicher N, Capra A, Bromberger J, Butler LM, Crandall CJ, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Modugno F, Sternfeld B, Habel L. Physical activity and mammographic density in a cohort of midlife women. Med Sci Sports Exercise 2008;40:451-456.

  • Thurston RC, Sowers MF, Chang Y, Sternfeld B, Gold EB, Johnston JM, Matthews KA. Adiposity and reporting of vasomotor symptom among midlife women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167:78-85.

  • Bair Y, Gold EB, Utts J, Zhang G, Rasor M, Greendale GA, Upchurch D, Chyu L, Sternfeld B, Adler SR. The use of complimentary and alternative medicine during the menopausal transition: longitudinal results from the Study of Women’ Health Across the Nation. Menopause 2008; 15(1):32-43.

  • Pierce JP, Newman V, Natarajan L, Flatt SW, Al-Delaimy WK, Caan B, Emond J, Faerber S, Gold EB, Hajek R, Hollenbach K, Jones LA, Karanji N, Kealey S, Madlensky L, Marshall J, Ritenbaugh C, Rock CL, Stefanick ML, Thomson C, Wasserman L, Parker B. Telephone counseling helps maintain long-term adherence to a high-vegetable dietary pattern. J Nutr 2007; 137:2291-2296.

  • Tomey KM, Sowers MFR, Li X, McConnell DS, Crawford S, Gold EB, Lasley B, Randolph Jr. JF. Dietary fat subgroups, zinc and vegetable components are related to urine F2a-isoprostane concentration, a measure of oxidative stress, in midlife women. J Nutr 2007; 137:2412-2419.

  • Selmio C, Gershwin ME, Lindor KD, Worman HJ, Gold EB, Watnick M, Utts J, Invernizzi P, Kaplan MM, Vierling JM, Bowlus CL, Silveira MG, Bossi I and the USA PBC Epidemiology Group. Quality of life and everyday activities in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 2007; 46:1835-1843.

  • Gold EB, Lasley BL, Crawford S, McConnell D, Joffe H, Greendale GA. Relation of daily urinary hormone patterns to vasomotor symptoms in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of midlife women: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Repro Sci 2007; 14:786-797.

  • Bromberger JT, Matthews KA, Schott L, Brockwell S, Avis N, Kravitz H, Everson-Rose S, Gold EB, Sowers MF, Randolph J: Depressive symptoms during the menopausal transition: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). J Affective Disorders 2007;103:267-272

  • Gold EB, Bair Y, Block G, Greendale GA, Harlow SD, Johnson S, Kravitz HM, Rasor MO, Siddiqui A, Sternfeld B, Utts J, Zhang G. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with premenstrual symptoms in a racially diverse community sample: study of women’s health across the nation (SWAN). J Women’s Health 2007;16:641-656.

  • Pierce JP, Natarajan L, Caan BJ, Parker BA, Greenberg RE, Flatt SW, Kealey S, Rock CL, Al-Delaimy WK, Bardwell WA, Carlson R, Emond JA, Faerber S, Gold EB, et al. The influence of a very high vegetable-fruit-fiber, low-fat diet on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: Results from the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial. JAMA 2007;298:289-298.

  • Gold EB, Greendale GA: Epidemiology of menopause: demographics, environmental influences, and ethnic and international differences in the menopausal experience. In: Lobo RA (ed.), Treatment of the Postmenopausal Woman, Basic and Clinical Aspects, 3rd edition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2007, pp. 77-98.

  • Gold EB, Bair Y, Zhang G, Utts J, Greendale GA, Upchurch D, Chyu L, Sternfeld B, Adler S. Cross-sectional analysis of specific complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by racial/ethnic group and menopausal status: the Study of Women’ Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Menopause 2007; 14:1-12.

  • Habel LA, Capra A, Oestreicher N, Greendale G, Cauley JA, Bromberger J, Crandall C, Gold EB, Mundugno F, Salane M, Quesenberry C, Sternfeld B. Mammographic density in a multi-ethnic cohort. Menopause 2007; 14:1-9

  • Mortimer JE, Flatt SW, Parker B, Gold EB, Wasserman L, Natarajan L, Pierce JP. Tamoxifen, Hot Flashes and Recurrence in Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2007.

  • Santoro N, Brockwell S, Johnston J, Crawford S, Gold EB, Harlow S, Matthews K, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Helping midlife women predict the onset of their final menses – SWAN, the Study of Women Across the Nation. Menopause 2007; 14:415-424.

  • Upchurch DM, Greendale GA, Chyu L, Gold EB, Utts J, Bair Y, Zhang G. Complementary and alternative medicine use among American women: findings from the National Health Interview Survey. J Women’s Health 2007; 16(1):102-13

  • Waetjen LE, Liao S, Johnson WO, Sampselle CM, Sternfeld B, Harlow SD, Gold EB. Factors associated with prevalent and incident urinary incontinence in a cohort of mid-life women: A longitudinal analysis of data from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Amer J Epidemiol 2006;165:309-318.

  • Pierce JP, Natarajan L, Sun S, Al-Delaimy W, Flatt S, Kealy S, Rock CL, Thomson CA, Newman VA, Rittenbaugh C, Caan B, Gold EB, for the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Group. Increases in plasma carotenoid concentrations in response to a major dietary change in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living study. Cancer Epidemiol, Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(10):1886-1892.

  • Crandall CJ, Crawford S, Gold EB. Vasomotor symptom prevalence is determined by Polymorphisms in sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes and receptors. Am J Med 2006;119(A): S52-60.

  • Sowers MF, Crawford S, McConnell D, Randolph JF, Gold EB, Lasley B, Wilkin MK. Selected diet and lifestyle factors are associated with estrogen metabolites in a multiracial/ethnic population of women. J Nutr 2006;136:1588-1595.

  • Huang M-H, Luetters C, Buckwalter GJ, Seeman TE, Gold EB, Sternfeld B, Greendale GA. Dietary genistein intake and cognitive performance in a multi-ethnic cohort of midlife women. Menopause 2006;13(4):621-630.

  • Gold EB, Colvin A, Avis N, Bromberger J, Greendale GA, Powell L, Sternfeld B, Matthews K. Longitudinal analysis of vasomotor symptoms and race/ethnicity across the menopausal transition: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Am J Public Health 2006; 96:1226-35

  • Gold EB, Flatt S, Pierce JP, Bardwell WA, Hajek R, Newman V, Rock CL, Stefanick M. Dietary factors and vasomotor symptoms in breast cancer survivors, the WHEL Study. Menopause 2006; 13:423-433.

  • Randolph Jr, JF, Sowers MF, Bondarenko I, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Bromberger JT, Brockwell SE, Matthews KA. The relationship of longitudinal change in reproductive hormones and vasomotor symptoms across the menopausal transition. J Clin Endocrinol Met 2005; 90(11):6106-6112.

  • Santoro N, Torrens J, Crawford S, Allsworth J, Finkelstein JS, Gold EB, Korenman S, Lasley BL, Luborsky JL, Sowers MF, Torrens J, Weiss G. Correlates of circulating androgens in mid-life women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. J Clin Endocrinol Met 2005; 90(8):4836-4845

  • Greendale GA, Gold EB. Lifestyle Factors: Are they related to vasomotor symptoms and do they modify the effectiveness or side effects of hormone therapy? Amer J Med 2005(suppl); 118(12B):148S-154S.

  • Gershwin ME, Selmi C, Worman HJ, Gold EB, Watnick M, Utts JM, Lindor KD, Kaplan MM, Vierling JM. Risk factors for and comorbidities in primary biliary cirrhosis: a controlled interview-based study of 1032 patients. Hepatol 2005; 42(5):1194-1202.

  • Siddiqui AR, Lee K, Gold EB, Bhutta ZA. Eye and respiratory symptoms among women exposed to wood smoke emitted from indoor cooking: A study from southern Pakistan. Energy for Sustainable Dev 2005; 9:58-67.

  • Hammond SK, Gold EB, Baker R, Quinlan P, Smith W, Pandya R, Balmes J: Respiratory health effects related to occupational spray painting and welding. J Occup Environ Med 2005; 47:728-39.

  • Yost K, Haan M, Levine R, Gold E: Comparing SF-36 scores across three groups of women with different health profiles. Quality of Life Res 2005; 14:1251-1261.

  • Kass PH, Gold EB. Modern Epidemiologic Study Designs. In: Ahrens, Wolfgang and Pigeot Iris. Handbook of Epidemiology. Springer, New York, 2005, pages 321-344.

  • Green RS, Gold EB, Samuels SJ, Dosemeci M: The relation of occupational solvent exposure to symptom reporting in a sample of Caucasian and Chinese midlife women. J Occup Environ Med 2005; 47:410-423.

  • Bair YA, Gold EB, Kravitz R, Azari R, Greendale GA, Adler S, Sternfeld B. Use of conventional and complementary health care during the menopause transition: longitudinal results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Menopause 2005; 12:31-39.

  • Natarajan L, Rock CL, Major JM, Thomson CA, Caan BJ, Flatt SW, Chilton JA, Hollenbach KA, Newman VA, Faerber S, Ritenbaugh CK, Gold E, Stefanick ML, Jones LA, Marshall JR, Pierce JP: On the importance of using multiple methods of dietary assessment. Epidemiology 2004; 15:738-745.

  • Ducore JM, Parikh-Patel A, Gold EB. Cancer occurrence in Southeast Asian children in California. J Pediatr Hematol/Oncol 2004;26:613-618.

  • Pierce JP, Newman VA, Flatt SW, Faerber S, Rock CL, Natarajan L, Caan BJ, Gold EB, et al for the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Group: Telephone counseling intervention increases intakes of micronutrient- and phytochemical-rich vegetables, fruit and fiber in breast cancer survivors. J Nutr 2004;134:452-458.

  • Liu Y, Gold EB, Lasley BL, Johnson WO: Factors affecting menstrual cycle characteristics. Amer J Epidemiol 2004;160:131-140.

  • Liu Y, Johnson WO, Gold EB, Lasley BL: Bayesian analysis of the effect of risk factors on anovulation rates in cycling women. Stat Med 2004;23:1901-1919

  • Santoro N, Lasley BL, McConnell D, Allsworth J, Crawford S, Gold EB, et al: Body size and ethnicity are associated with menstrual cycle alterations in women in the early menopausal transition: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Daily Hormone Study. J Clin Endocrinol Met 2004;89:2622-2631.

  • Gold EB, Block G, Crawford S, LaChance L, Fitzgerald G, Miracle H, Sherman S: Lifestyle and demographic factors in relation to vasomotor symptoms: Baseline results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Amer J Epidemiol 2004;159:1189-1199.

  • Randolph JF, Sowers MF, Gold EB, Mohr A, Luborsky J, Santoro N, McConnell DS, Finkelstein JS, Korenman SG, Mathews KA, Sternfeld B, Lasley BL: Reproductive hormones in the early menopausal transition: relationship to ethnicity, body size, and menopausal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:1516-22.

  • Santoro N, Crawford SL, Allsworth JE, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Korenman S, Lasley BL, McConnell D, McGaffigan P, Midgely R, Schocken M, Sowers MF, Weiss G: Assessing menstrual cycles using urinary hormone assays. Amer J Physiol: Endocrinol Metab 2003; 284:E521-30.

  • Pierce JP, Faerber S, Wright FA, Rock CL, Newman V, Flatt SW, Kealey S, Jones VE, Caan BJ, Gold EB, et al: The Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Group. A randomized trial of the effect of a plant-based dietary pattern on additional breast cancer events and survival: The Women’s Health Eating and Living (WHEL) Study. Controlled Clin Trials 2002;23:728-56.

  • Bair YA, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Sternfeld B, Adler SR, Azari R, Harkey M: Ethnic differences in use of complementary and alternative medicine at midlife: longitudinal results from SWAN participants. Am J Public Health 2002; 92:1832-40

  • Parikh-Patel A, Gold EB, Utts J, Worman H, Krivy KE, Gershwin E: Functional status of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol 2002 Nov 97(11):2871-9

  • Huang M-H, Schocken M, Block G, Sowers MF, Gold EB, Sternfeld B, Seeman T, Greendale G: Variation in nutrient intakes by ethnicity: results from the Study of womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Menopause 2002; 9(5):309-19.

  • Sternfeld B, Jacobs MK, Quesenberry Jr CP, Gold EB, Sowers MF: Physical activity and menstrual cycle characteristics in two prospective cohorts. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:402-9.

  • Greendale GA, G Fitzgerald, M-H Huang, B Sternfeld, E Gold, T Seeman, S Sherman and MF Sowers (2002) Dietary soy isoflavones and bone mineral density: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Am J Epidemiol. 115:746-54.

  • Lasley, Bill L, Nanette Santoro, John F Randolph, Ellen B Gold, Sybil Crawford, Gerson Weiss, Daniel S McConnell and Mary Fran Sowers (2002) The relationship of circulating dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, and estradiol to stages of the menopausal transition and ethnicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87(8):3760-7.

  • Gold, E B, J Bromberger, S Crawford, S Samuels, G A Greendale, S D Harlow and J Skurnick (2001) Factors associated with age at natural menopause in a multiethnic sample of midlife women. Am J Epidemiol. 153(9):865-74.

  • Parikh-Patel, A, E B Gold, H Worman, K E Krivy and M E Gershwin (2001) Risk factors for primary biliary cirrhosis in a cohort of patients from the united states. Hepatology. 33(1):16-21.

  • Gold, E B, B Sternfeld, J L Kelsey, C Brown, C Mouton, N Reame, L Salamone and R Stellato (2000) Relation of demographic and lifestyle factors to symptoms in a multi-racial/ethnic population of women 40-55 years of age. Am J Epidemiol. 152(5):463-73.